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Main pageHealth A-ZDiagnostics → Instrumental investigation
Instrumental investigation

Инструментальные исследования – это такие специальные техники исследования, которые предполагают использование специальное оборудование.

 

Инструментальное исследование, впрочем как и любое другое, назначается ровно как для того, чтобы подтвердить определенный диагноз, так и исключить.

 

Взглянуть внутрь организма человечество смогло еще в конце 19 века, когда в 1985 году был изобретен рентген. Сегодня с помощью рентгеновских лучей можно изучить любой орган. Также широко используется в диагностике ультразвук (УЗИ), электрическое поле (электрокардиография (ЭКГ)), ядерный магнитный резонанс (МРТ). 

Интересно, что для отдельных органов и систем изобретены свои методы диагностики (например, для молочной железы – маммография, для толстого кишечника – колоноскопия, для шейки матки – гистероскопия и прочее).

 

 

Articles

17.04.2015
    Definition Procedure                         Definition Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems. Through the endoscope, the physician ...
17.04.2015
    Definition                         Definition This means that the reflexes occur below the level of the brain. Each muscle group contains stretch-receptors that, when stimulated quickly cause the muscle to contract. The stretch signal goes up to the ...
22.01.2015
11.11.2014
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23.07.2014
Definition Procedure             Definition Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart. This is done both for diagnostic and interventional purposes. Subsets of this technique are mainly coronary catheterization, involving the catheterization of the coronary ...
22.07.2014
Definition What is it used for         Definition  The sigmoid colon is the final portion of the bowel that is joined to the rectum. A sigmoidoscope is a small tube with an attached light source about the thickness of your finger. A doctor or nurse inserts the ...
21.07.2014
  Definition How it is Performed           Definition A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTCA) is an x-ray of the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine.   How it is Performed The test is performed ...
18.07.2014
  Definition Purpose           Definition In thoracoscopy, a thin, flexible viewing tube (called a thoracoscope) is inserted through a small incision in the chest. Fiberoptic cables permit the surgeon to visually inspect the lungs, mediastinum (the area between the lungs), and pleura (the membrane covering the ...
17.07.2014
  Definition Procedure         Definition Tympanometry is an examination used to test the condition of the middle ear and mobility of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and the conduction bones by creating variations of air pressure in the ear canal. Tympanometry is an objective test of middle-ear ...
16.07.2014
  Definition Why is it performed         Definition A barium X-ray is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Barium X-rays (also called upper and lower GI series) are used to diagnose abnormalities of the GI tract, such as tumors, ulcers and ...
16.07.2014
  Definition Medical use         Definition Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by muscle ...
15.07.2014
    Definition For what it is done                 Definition Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the ...
14.07.2014
  Definition Indications           Definition Spirometry is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. Spirometry is an important tool used for generating pneumotachographs, which are helpful ...
11.07.2014
  Definition       Definition Fluorography is photography of X-ray images from fluorescent screen. It is commonly used in some countries for chest X-ray scr...
11.07.2014
  Definition Reasons             Definition Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures--similar to an X-ray "movie." A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined. The beam is transmitted to a TV-like monitor so that ...
10.07.2014
    Definition Why it is done               Definition Mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure to examine the inside of the upper chest between and in front of the lungs (mediastinum). During a mediastinoscopy , a small cut (incision) is made in the neck just above ...
09.07.2014
  Definition Types       Definition Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform surgery.   Types There ...
09.07.2014
    Definition         Definition Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into ...
08.07.2014
    Definition         Definition Auscultation is the method of listening to the sounds of the body during a physical examination. Auscultation is usually done using a tool called a stethoscope. Health care providers routinely listen to a patient's lungs, heart, and intestines to evaluate the ...
08.07.2014
  Definition Procedure       Definition Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient'...
08.07.2014
  Definition Procedure         Definition Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. ...
07.07.2014
  Definition How it is perfomed       Definition An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulates the nerves of the inner ear. Eventually the sound travels ...
07.07.2014
  Definition Procedure         Definition Intravenous urography (also known as intravenous pyelography) is an X-ray procedure which is used to assess problems in the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. These structures make up the urinary tract. The ureters are tubes which go from each kidney to ...
04.07.2014
  Definition Technique       Definition Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque ...
04.07.2014
  Definition           Definition Venography (also called phlebography or ascending phlebography) is a procedure in which an x-ray of the veins, a venogram, is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins. The dye has to be injected constantly via ...
03.07.2014
  Definition           Definition   Echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart. Echocardiography uses standard two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and Doppler ultrasound to create images of the heart.  Echocardiography has become routinely used in ...
03.07.2014
  Definition Procedure       Definition Myelography is a type of radiographic examination that uses a contrast medium to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors. The procedure often involves injection of contrast medium into the cervical or lumbar ...
01.07.2014
    Definition Procedure     Definition Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix. It allows for the diagnosis of intrauterine pathology and serves as a method for surgical intervention (operative hysteroscopy).   Procedure Hysteroscopy has been done in the hospital, surgical ...
29.06.2014
  Definition Kinds         Definition Endoscopy is a procedure that lets your doctor look inside your body. It uses an instrument called an endoscope, or scope for short. Scopes have a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube. The doctor moves it through a body passageway ...
29.06.2014
    Definition How it is Performed           Definition Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It ...
29.06.2014
    Definition          Definition  Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize muscles and internal organs, their size, structure and any pathological lesions, making them useful for scanning the organs. Obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy. Back to Top   ...
27.06.2014
    Definition How it  is Performed          Definition Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. Your blood pressure can be measured at home, or at your health care provider's ...
27.06.2014
Definition How it  is Perfor med         Definition A computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body.   How it is Perfomed During the test, you will lie on a table that is attached to the CT scanner, ...
27.06.2014
    Definition How it is Performed         Definition X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. An x-ray machine sends individual x-ray particles through the body. The images are recorded on a computer or film. Structures that are dense (such ...
26.06.2014
  Definiton         Definiton  Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Traditionally this is in the form of a transthoracic (across the thorax or chest) interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached ...
26.06.2014
  Definition How MRI works       Definition Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and function of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic ...
19.06.2014
    Definition Procedure         Definition Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic ...
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