Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and function of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields and radiowaves to form images of the body. The technique is widely used in hospitals for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and for follow-up without exposure to ionizing radiation.
To perform a study the patient is positioned within an MRI scanner which forms a strong magnetic field around the area to be imaged. Most medical applications rely on detecting a radio frequency signal emitted by excited hydrogen atoms in the body (present in any tissue containing water molecules) using energy from an oscillating magnetic field applied at the appropriate resonant frequency. The orientation of the image is controlled by varying the main magnetic field using gradient coils. As these coils are rapidly switched on and off they create the characteristic repetitive noises of an MRI scan. The contrast between different tissues is determined by the rate at which excited atoms return to the equilibrium state. Exogenous contrast agents may be given intravenously, orally or intra-articularly. MRI requires a magnetic field that is both strong and uniform. The field strength of the magnet is measured in tesla – and while the majority of systems operate at 1.5T commercial systems are available between 0.2T–7T. Most clinical magnets are superconducting which requires liquid helium. The lower field strengths can be achieved with permanent magnets, which are often used in "open" MRI scanners for claustrophobic patients.
|Сагай Владимир Александрович||
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