Thyroid cancer is a cancer originating from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells. The most effective management of aggressive thyroid cancers is surgical removal of thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) followed by radioactive iodine ablation and TSH-suppression therapy. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy may also be used in cases of distant metastases or advanced cancer stage.
Thyroid Cancers are thought to be related to to a number of environmental and genetic predisposing factors, but significant uncertainty remains regarding its causes. Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation from both natural background sources and artificial sources are suspected to play a significant role, and there are significant increased rates of thyroid cancer rates in those exposed to mantlefield radiation for lymphoma, and those exposed to iodine-131 following the Chernobyl disaster. Thyroiditis and other thyroid disease also predisposes to thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer can cause several symptoms:
You may get a lump or swelling in your neck. This is the most common symptom.
You may have pain in your neck and sometimes in your ears.
You may have trouble swallowing.
You may have trouble breathing or have constant wheezing.
Your voice may be hoarse.
You may have a frequent cough that is not related to a cold.
Some people may not have any symptoms. Their doctors may find a lump or nodule in the neck during a routine physical exam.